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Old 4th September 2018, 10:43   #1 (permalink)
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Your first goal is the Mediterranean, Forward - September 1, 1922

GRECO-TURKISH WAR: BATTLE OF DUMLUPINAR, August 26-30 1922, THE GREEK ARMY OF ASIA MINOR IS ROUTED BY MUSTAFA KEMAL.

"Armies, your first goal is the Mediterranean, Forward!" - Mustafa Kemal Pasha, September 1, 1922.
After World War I, the Greeks attempted to extend their territory beyond eastern Thrace and the district of Smyrna in Anatolia. These territories had been assigned to them by the Treaty of Sèvres, August 10, 1920, which was imposed upon the weak Ottoman government.

In January 1921 the Greek army, despite its lack of equipment and its unprotected supply lines, launched an offensive in Anatolia against the nationalist Turks, who had defied the Ottoman government and would not recognize its treaty. Although repulsed in April, the Greeks renewed their attack in July and advanced beyond the Afyonkarahisar-Eskişehir railway line toward Ankara. The Turks, however, commanded by the nationalist leader Mustafa Kemal, defeated them at the Sakarya River (August 24–September 16, 1921).

The Turks finally launched a counter-attack on August 26, what has come to be known to the Turks as the "Great Offensive" (Büyük Taarruz). The Turks amassed around 104,000 men, the largest number since the beginning of the war, to begin the offensive and drive the Greek army of over 200,000 men. The major Greek defense positions were overrun on August 26, and Afyon fell next day.

On August 30, the Greek army was defeated decisively at the Battle of Dumlupınar, with half of its soldiers captured or slain and its equipment entirely lost. This date is celebrated as Victory Day, a national holiday in Turkey and salvage day of Kütahya. During the battle, Greek General Nikolaos Trikoupis and General Dionis were captured by the Turkish forces. General Trikoupis learned only after his capture that he had been recently appointed Commander-in-Chief in General Hatzianestis' place.

The Turkish Army retook possession of the Smyrna on 9 September 1922, effectively ending the Greco-Turkish War and driving the Greeks out of Anatolia. Casualties for the Greeks: 50,000, for the Turks: 13,000.

According to a number of sources, the retreating Greek army carried out a scorched-earth policy while fleeing from Anatolia during the final phase of the war. The Treaty of Lausanne, concluded on July 24, 1923, obliged Greece to return eastern Thrace and the islands of Imbros and Tenedos to Turkey, as well as to give up its claim to Smyrna. The two belligerents also agreed to exchange their Greek and Turkish minority populations.
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